Cybersecurity is the protection of Internet-connected systems, including hardware, software, and data from cyber attackers. It is primarily about people, processes, and technologies working together to encompass the full range of threat reduction, vulnerability reduction, deterrence, international engagement, and recovery policies and activities, including computer network operations, information assurance, law enforcement, etc.

It is the body of technologies, processes, and practices designed to protect networks, devices, programs, and data from attack, theft, damage, modification, or unauthorized access. Therefore, it may also be referred to as information technology security.

Cyber-attack is now an international concern. It has given many concerns that could endanger the global economy. As the volume of cyber-attacks grows, companies and organizations, especially those that deal with information related to national security, health, or financial records, need to take steps to protect their sensitive business and personal information.

This Cyber Security tutorial provides basic and advanced concepts of Cyber Security technology. It will cover the most popular concept of Cyber Security, such as what is Cyber Security, Cyber Security goals, types of cyber-attacks, types of cyber attackers, policies, digital signature, Cyber Security tools, security risk analysis, challenges, etc.


It is a basic tutorial where we can quickly understand the topics discussed if we have a basic understanding of how a firm or organization handles computer security. It is also helpful for us to have some prior experience with computer updates, firewalls, antiviruses, and other security measures.


Our Cyber Security tutorial is designed to help beginners and professionals.


We assure you that you will not find any problem with this tutorial. However, if you find any, you can post it on the contact form.


Cybersecurity is a popular topic, but do you know why it is essential? We are living in a digital era where data is everything. We must understand that private information is much more vulnerable than ever before. We often hear about data breaches and cases of identity theft that affect millions of consumers. Two years ago, WannaCry ransomware encrypted millions of computers. All companies and institutions are fighting to protect their data against hackers and cybercriminals, and you can also play a role in it. Cybersecurity is not involved only in organizations, but even personal computers, mobile phones, and tablets.

What is Cybersecurity?

Before we begin learning this cyber security for beginners tutorial, let us first understand what exactly is cyber security and what is its significance. Cybersecurity is the technology and process that is designed to protect networks and devices from attacks, damage, or unauthorized access. Cybersecurity is essential for a country’s military, hospitals, large corporations, small businesses, and other organizations and individuals since data is now the cornerstone of any organization. If that data is exploited, then there are a lot of risks. Now, we have understood what cybersecurity is, let’s see what the CIA triad is and how it is related to cybersecurity.

CIA Triad

The security of any organization starts with three principles: Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability. And next in this cyber security for beginners tutorial we will learn about the CIA Triad, which has served as the industry standard for computer security since the time of first mainframes.


Fig: CIA triad

Confidentiality: The principles of confidentiality assert that only authorized parties can access sensitive information and functions. Example: military secrets.
Integrity: The principles of integrity assert that only authorized people and means can alter, add, or remove sensitive information and functions. Example: a user entering incorrect data into the database.
Availability: The principles of availability assert that systems, functions, and data must be available on-demand according to agreed-upon parameters based on levels of service.
Next up in the cyber security for beginners tutorial, let’s look at the areas and speciality in cybersecurity to understand the space better.

Specialties in Cybersecurity

To pursue your career in cybersecurity, it is essential to know about the areas of specialization in it, and this cyber security for beginners tutorial will help you do just that. There are nine:

Access control systems and methodology: This deals with protecting critical system resources from unauthorized modification.
Telecommunications and network security: This focuses on communications, protocols, and network services, and the potential vulnerabilities associated with each.
Security management practices: This area deals effectively with catastrophic systems failures, natural disasters, and other types of service interruptions.
Security architecture and models: This focuses mostly on having security policies and procedures in place. This particular security domain involves policy planning for just about every type of security issue.
Law, investigation, and ethics: This handles the legal issues associated with computer security.
Application and system development security: This person covers things like database security models and the implementation of multilevel security for in-house applications.
Cryptography: Designed to help you understand how and when to use encryption.
Computer operations security: This covers all those things that happen while your computers are running.
Physical security: This primarily addresses questions about physical access to your servers and workstations.
A cyber security bootcamp provides hands-on experience and theoretical insights, allowing individuals to uncover their specific interests and strengths. By focusing on these specialties, participants can enhance their skills and knowledge, preparing them for roles that demand expertise in specific aspects of cybersecurity.

Basic Terminologies

Next up, this cyber security for beginners tutorial will help you understand some of the terminologies you must be familiar with before learning anything about cybersecurity.

1. Network

A network is a connection between two or more computers so that they can communicate with each other. For example:


Fig: Network Connection

2. Internet

Internet is a means of connecting a computer to any other computer anywhere in the world via dedicated routers and servers.

3. Internet Protocols

The data that is transferred or received cannot follow any path. There are a set of rules that are followed to control the flow of the internet. These rules are called internet protocol.

4. IP Address

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is an address assigned to all devices that connect to a computer network and uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address looks like this:

5. MAC Address

This is a unique identification number that every device has that connects to the internet. Traditional MAC addresses are 12-digit hexadecimal numbers. MAC address looks like this: D8-FC-93-C5-A5-EO.

6. Domain Name Server(DNS)

Consider DNS as the phonebook of the internet. All the IP addresses and the name of the links are saved in it. For example, you want to go to google.com. You type this on your web application. Then, this name goes to the DNS server, and the DNS server finds the IP address of google.com. Then, the DNS server returns it to your computer with the IP address.



Dynamic host configuration protocol is a protocol that assigns an IP address to any device that wants to connect to the internet.

Fig: DHCP providing IP addresses

8. Router

This is a device that routes the data that comes to it and then sends that data to the destination to ensure that it is on the appropriate path.

9. Bots

Bots are computer programs that control your computer without your knowledge. They automatically send emails, retrieve web pages, and change computer settings.

Common Types of Attacks

Before we get into the types of attacks, we should know why these attacks happen, and this cyber security for beginners tutorial will help you learn A-Z of both. There is always a motive behind every attack; the main reason for attacks is money. Hackers penetrate the system and then demand ransom from the victims. There are other reasons like a financial loss to the target, achieving a state’s military objective, damaging the reputation of the target, or political maneuvering.

There are mainly five types of attacks:

Distributed denial of service(DDoS)
Man in the middle
Email attacks
Password attacks
Malware attack
In the next section of this cyber security for beginners tutorial, let’s look at all the attacks in detail:





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